HOW YOUR CELLS GENERATE ENERGY

HOW YOUR CELLS GENERATE ENERGY (and harmful waste products too)

The human body needs a constant supply of energy to run smoothly. Your body gathers energy from the food that you eat. The proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that make up most of the food that you consume are broken down by your digestive system so your cells can use them in a variety of ways. That’s why the quality of food that you put in your body has a tremendous impact on your performance and how you feel throughout the day.

In this post, we will focus on the most important part of the energy production process, the generation of ATP from GlucoseATP or Adenosine Tri-Phosphate is the energy currency of your cells that makes things happen. Everything from breathing, running, thinking, to winking requires ATP. Once an ATP molecule gives away its energy, it turns into ADP (Adenosine Di-Phosphate). In essence, all of the energy that ATP gives away is stored in a Phosphate-Phosphate bond as shown in the figure below. The third phosphate group is now gone, and the result is two phosphate groups connected to ribose, hence the name Adenosine Di-Phosphate.

The key is to constantly replenish your supply of ATP so you have adequate energy to perform all the tasks of the day. We will now examine the steps that your body takes to produce ATP after you eat food,  especially carbohydrates.

THE 4 MAIN STEPS TO ATP PRODUCTION IN THE MITOCHONDRIA

STEP 1: GLUCOSE IS TAKEN INSIDE YOUR CELLS.

Glucose is the most important energy source and it’s the main fuel in the process that recycles ADP back into ATP. Glucose mainly comes from carbohydrates, which is why it’s the biggest food group in a typical food pyramid. Carbohydrates are easily broken down by your digestive system into glucose molecules, which are then absorbed into the blood. When your body detects a rise in glucose levels in the blood, the hormone insulin is released, which opens up cells to let glucose inside them.

STEP 2: GLUCOSE IS BROKEN DOWN BY A PROCESS CALLED GLYCOLYSIS (GLUCOSE BREAKDOWN). GLYCOLYSIS RESULTS IN 1 GLUCOSE YIELDING 2 NADH MOLECULES AND 2 PYRUVATE MOLECULES

Once glucose molecules enter the cells, they undergo Glycolysis, which breaks down glucose molecules into NADH and Pyruvate. NADH is a transport molecule that takes electrons into the Mitochondria in step 4 for further processing. Pyruvate is a broken down half-piece of glucose that goes into another process to produce more NADH.

STEP 3: PYRUVATE IS SHUTTLED INTO THE MITOCHONDRIA AND ENTERS THE KREBS CYCLE

Pyruvate, which are broken down pieces of glucose, are taken into the Mitochondria to enter the KREBS CYCLE or CITRIC ACID CYCLE. The KREBS CYCLE is a complex cycle of enzymes that rips off electrons from Pyruvate to produce 4 more NADH molecules.

The KREBS CYCLE takes place inside of your Mitochondria. Inside each of the TRILLIONS of cells that make up your body, there are up to THOUSANDS of mitochondria, which means there’s up to a QUADRILLION mitochondria that power your body. (Quadrillion is 1,000,000,000,000,000). A single mitochondria is called a mitochondrion, and each mitochondrion is a tiny little engine that uses glucose and it’s parts as fuel to produce ATP.

STEP 4: NADH PRODUCED FROM GLYCOLYSIS AND THE KREBS CYCLE DONATE ELECTRONS TO THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN WHICH IS LOCATED ON THE INNER MEMBRANE OF A MITOCHONDRION.

While electrons are traveling through the ETC, positive hydrogen ions, also called protons, are pushed into the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. A pressure gradient begins to build up because there are more protons in the intermembrane space than inside the mitochondria. The pressure that builds is like the water pressure that builds on one side of a dam. A dam harnesses the water pressure to push generators. In much the same way, ATP synthase harnesses the pressure gradient of protons to convert ADP into ATP as the protons pass through the ATP Synthase to reach the inside of the mitochondrion.

And that’s it! Although this process seems pretty straight-forward, it’s not a perfect system. Unfortunately, from this seemingly everyday normal production of ATP there are harmful waste products that get generated called FREE RADICALS.

HOW DO FREE RADICALS FORM?

The mitochondrion has an imperfect system. 2-4% of the time, an electron leaks from the ETC and gets taken up by an oxygen molecule, turning the oxygen molecule into a free radical called superoxide. This is where the free radical production begins.

Superoxide by itself is a weak free radical, meaning that it’s not very reactive. It’s usually cleaned up by an antioxidant enzyme called Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). SOD mutates the superoxide into a Hydrogen peroxide, which is also a free radical, but it’s useful because your immune cells use it to kill bacteria. Hydrogen Peroxide is then converted to water by Glutathione Peroxidase.

As you can see there’s a two-step process in completely neutralizing free radicals into water. The problem arises when there’s a buildup of Superoxide and Hydrogen peroxide with not enough SOD and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH) to eliminate them. When there is too much superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in the cells, there’s a higher chance of them transforming into more dangerous free radicals such as Hydroxyl Radicals. This buildup can happen for two reasons. Either more free radicals are being produced, or there are less antioxidant enzymes available.

Free radicals are like the carbon monoxide pollution that gets produced by a car. Just like how a car engine burns gasoline for fuel and carbon monoxide comes out of the exhaust, in much the same way, free radicals are what gets produced when energy is generated inside your cells.

 

NanoMeal-G Flyer

nanomeal Nanomeal-G provides a single serving of NanoGreens10, NanoProPRP and NanOmega-3 combined in individual sachets.  The perfect daily nutrition for travel or the business driven person with limited preparation time!

That’s the equivalent antioxidant intake of 10 organic fruits and vegetables, a meals worth of vegetarian omega-3 fatty acids and a small meals worth of protein – all in 1 convenient packet… just add water!!!

Click HERE to view the Nanomeal-G flyer page.

 

NanoPro

nanopro NanoPro is like no other protein powder on the market.  While it contains a reasonable amount of high quality and superbly absorbed protein, this creamy, vanilla flavoured powder isn’t just another protein shake for gym goers to help build muscles!  NanoPro has a number of therapeutic benefits other protein shakes couldn’t even dream of providing.

The use of un-denatured whey protein isolate in combination with the lactase enzyme (for those who would otherwise find a lactose containing product unthinkable) is just the tip of the ‘immune focused iceberg’ for NanoPro; other functional ingredients include whole colostrum (taken from grain fed, non hormone fed, New Zealand cows) from the first and second milking which is then snap frozen for complete compound sparing, reduced L-glutathione, L-selenomethionine, prebiotics and Prolene Rich Polypeptides (PRP’s) all contribute to an effective blend that aids the scavenging and detoxification of metabolic and immune complexes from the body.  More on PRP’s:

“Proline-rich polypeptides (PRPs) function as signaling peptides produced by activated macrophages and activated T-cells that control the production of all cytokines. These naturally occurring peptides are found throughout the body and are the main regulators of cell protein synthesis. PRPs are also often called info-peptides, info-proteins, or cytokine precursors.”

http://www.apsbiogroup.com/immulox/about_colostrum_peptides.php

Click here to view the NanoPro flyer page

A short article discussing the relationship between the un-denatured whey protein used in nanoPro and many of its other antioxidant and detoxifying ingredents:

The Whey to Enhancing Glutathione, Our Most Powerful Endogenous Antioxidant and Detoxifier

Part of NanoPro’s ability to modulate immune responses in the body comes from the generous amount of Lacoferrin: around 35-40g per serve!  More about this below:

Lactoferrin: Multifunctional Whey Peptide Super Food

Here, we see the impact of PRP’s on anaphylaxic response in animals:

ASSESSMENT OF ANTI-ALLERGIC PROPERTIES OF PROLINE RICH POLYPEPTIDE EXTRACT(PRP) ON SYSTEMIC ANAPHYLAXIS IN GUINEA PIGS

Finally, the documented results of combining NanoGreens10 and NanoPro – it’s exciting but certainly far from heart stopping!!

NanoReds10

nanoReds

This incredible tasting “Red” powder features the highly absorbed and longer lasting antioxidant benefits from proprietary made Wellberry™.  Combining Wellberry™ with a host of other organic fruits and vegetables means that nanoReds10 provides the anti-oxidant punch of a huge 10 serves of fruit and vegetables in a single serve!

Click HERE to view the NanoReds flyer page

The review below by BioPharma Scientific’s own John H Maher, DC, DCBCN, BCIM, outlines some of the scientifically shown benefits NanoReds10 may provide:

Here Dr John Maher of BioPharma Scientific highlights some of the “lesser known” theories of osteoporosis causality related to phytonutrient status:

The Etiology of Osteoporosis: Bones of Contention!

NanoGreens10 Research Information

nanogreensNanoGreens10 from BioPharma Scientific is not only the best tasting ‘green superfood’ around but it is also one of the most highly researched.  Below are some of the articles available pertaining to the product and its ingredients;

The effect of fruit and vegetable powder mix on hypertensive subjects: a pilot study

Investigation of antioxidant and triglyceride status of rats consuming a diet enriched by a  complex phytonutrient supplement, NanoGreens10.

Curcumin: A BIG Medicine says Chris Kilham, medicine hunter

Fox News .mobi released Curcumin: A BIG Medicine, an article by Chris Kilham, on 16 December, 2010. Chris Kilham is a medicine hunter who researches natural remedies all over the world, from the Amazon to Siberia. He teaches ethnobotany at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, where he is Explorer in Residence. Chris advises herbal, cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies and is a regular guest on radio and TV programs worldwide.

Chris believes a powerful compound called curcumin, found in the humble turmeric root, has the power to turn modern medicine on its proverbial ear. Continue reading